The follwoing article puts into perspective the need for Hijra. I am not giving any hukm, nor giving a fatwa calling for hijra to any specific place, but merely stating the importance that the Salaf placed on Hijra and the ruling on the one who does not intend to make Hijra. What is important in this article is that the author has used quotations from the both past and some contemporary Scholars, something that the English speaking audience do not have common access too. For information purposes only insha'Allah.
If you ever meet a Muslim in the West that tells you that Hijrah is not an obligation or that our real obligation is Da'wah in the West, then let him study the sayings of these Salaf and Shuyookh on living in the land of the Mushrikeen... We will start off with a few introductory quotes and then give quotes that detail the subject. Note that we are not doing Taqleed (blind following) here since the ayaat and ahadith on Hijrah are already explicit in regards to this matter and we only quote these Shuyookh here because some of them clearly explain these ayaat and ahadith.
Some of the ahadith to keep in mind while reading these quotes are:
The Prophet (sallallahu 'alayhe wassallam) said: "I have nothing to do with any Muslim who settles among the mushrikeen." (Sunan Abi Dawood (2274) & is a Sahih hadith, al-Irwaa', 5/30)
The Prophet (sallallahu 'alayhe wassallam) said, "I am not responsible for any Muslim who stays among polytheists." They asked: 'Why, Apostle of Allah?' He said: 'Their fires should not be visible to one another', and he (sallallahu 'alayhe wassallam) said, "Whoever joins the polytheists and lives with them then he is like them" and he (sallallahu 'alayhe wassallam) said: "Migration will not end until repentance ends, and repentance will not end until the sun rises in the West." ("Al-Musnad", Vol.4/99, Abu Dawud, Kitab al-Jihad, Vol.3/7, Hadith 2479, and ad-Darami, Kitab as-Siyyar, Vol.2/239. Albani classifies it as Sahih. See: "Sahih al-Ja'mi' as-Sagheer", Vol.6/186, Hadith 7346)
Ibn al-Arabi (rahimahullah) said,
"It is obligatory to leave a place where forbidden practices are rife since it is mandatory for Muslims to demand observance of the Law." Ibn al-Arabi, "Ahkaam al-Qur'an", Vol. 1/484-485
In this regard, Shaykh ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) said,
"The state of a place reflects the state of a person. It is possible to be sometimes a Muslim and at other times a disbeliever; sometimes sincere and at other times hypocritical; sometimes good and pious and at other times rotten and corrupt. Thus, a person becomes like the place of his abode. The migration of a person from a land of disbelief and profanity to one of faith and probity is an expression of repentance and of his turning away from disobedience and perversion to belief and obedience. This is so until the Day of Resurrection." "Majmu'al-Fatawa", 18/284
Shaykh Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi (fakkAllahu Asra) said:
"And perhaps the vast majority would use as an excuse, the benefit (Maslahah) of the Da'wah and the (resulting) trials (Fitnah). But which trial (Fitnah) is greater than the concealment of the Tawheed and the deception of the people regarding their religion? And which benefit (Maslahah) is greater than establishing the Millah of Ibrahim, while openly showing the allegiance to the religion of Allah as well as the enmity to the Tawagheet, who are worshipped, and devoted to besides Allah? And if the Muslims are not tested because of this, and if the (sacrificial) slaughtering is not put forth in His path, then for what would the tests be? So disbelieving in all of the Tawagheet is obligatory upon every Muslim by (the virtue of) half of the testimony (Shahaadah) of Islam. And openly declaring that, while showing it and making it apparent, is also a great obligation, and it is a must which all Muslim groups, or sub-groups from each group, must do so that it would become known and the (awareness) would spread. And also, so that it would become the distinguishing characteristic and description of these (various) Da'wahs. Such was the condition of the Prophet (sallallahu 'alayhe wassallam); not only in the time wherein he became established ( i.e., in Madinah), but also in the times of weakness as well (i.e., in Makkah), because it is well known that he used to be pointed to, by all the fingers, and (people) would warn others about him and describe him as having enmity towards their gods, and other things as well. And we find it odd; what is this Da'wah about which the callers weep for its benefit (Maslahah)? And which religion is it that they wish to establish and make apparent, while most of them consistently speak with the praising of the fabricated law (system) – and O what an evil – and some of them (even) praise it and bear witness to its fairness? And many of them (even) undertake an oath of honoring it and complying with its stipulations and its restrictions; reversing the (entire) issue ( i.e., Da'wah to Tawheed) and its very course. So instead of openly showing and declaring the enmity towards it (i.e., the law system), and disbelief in it, they openly show the allegiance to it and their pleasure with it. So is it the likes of those who would spread the Tawheed and establish the religion?! And to Allah is the grievance." Millat Ibrahim, pg. 55
Abul-Wafaa' ibn 'Uqayl (rahimahullah) said,
"If you wish to know the status of Islam amongst the people of a particular time, then do not look to the crowding at the doors of the Masajid, nor to their echoing with, 'Labbayk.' Rather, look to their enmity towards the enemies of the Shari'ah. So seek refuge, (again) seek refuge in the shield of the religion and remain steadfast to the great rope of Allah and the allegiance to His believing supporters and beware, (again) beware His opposing enemies, as the best thing by which to draw nearer to Allah, the Most High, is the severe fury towards those who oppose Allah and His Messenger …." Ad-Durar as-Saniyyah, page 238
Ibn Hazm (rahimahullah) states that:
"Whoever joins the 'land of war' and disbelief, of his own free will and in defiance of whoever amongst the Muslims calls him to his side, is by virtue of this act an apostate, by all the laws of apostasy, in Islam. Whoever is able to kill him must do so. His property is unprotected, his marriage null and void, all his rights are swept away.
But whoever flees to the 'land of war' for fear of oppression, who neither opposes the Muslims in anything nor bears any malice towards them, and who was not able to find any refuge among the Muslims, is free of any guilt since he was compelled to leave.
As for someone who takes the Muslims as his enemies, offering his help and his service to the disbelievers, he is a disbeliever. But those who would emigrate to non-Muslim lands in search of wealth or prosperity to live under their protection, while they were able to go to live amongst the Muslims in their own land, but still do not withdraw themselves from the disbelievers; such people are not far from the fold of disbelief, and we can find no possible excuse for them, so we ask Allah's Forgiveness.
As for the person who lives in the land of Karmathians by his own free will, he is without doubt a disbeliever, because they are avowed enemies of Islam, disbelievers and apostates who only long for the destruction of the Muslims. Concerning those who live in a land where some heretic tendencies, leading to disbelief, are manifested, they are not considered disbelievers, as Islam is supreme in the land where it is possible to practice Islam openly; to confirm the message of the Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu 'alayhe wassallam), read the Qur'an, establish the prayer, perform the fast of Ramadan and fulfill one's obligations entirely.
The words of the Prophet (sallallahu 'alayhe wassallam), "I am not responsible for any Muslim who stays among polytheists" should clarify what we have said so far. It is clear that the Prophet (sallallahu 'alayhe wassallam) refers here to the 'Dar ul-Harb', and because he (sallallahu 'alayhe wassallam) appointed some Companions as governors of Khaibar (Jewish land), even though everyone who lived there were Jews.
If a disbeliever conquers a Muslim country, then acknowledges their religion (Islam), but assumes authority over them, and then claims any other religion than Islam, whoever lives with him, supports, or serves him in any way is a disbeliever, even if he claims to be a Muslim, as aforementioned." Ibn Hazm, al-Muhalla': Vol. 13/139-140
Ibn Rushd (rahimahullah) said:
"It is obligatory, according to the Qur'an, Sunnah and scholarly consensus, for anyone who becomes Muslim in a Kafir country to migrate from there and settle in a Muslim land, and not to live among the mushrikeen or settle among them. That applies if he is not able to practice his religion openly or he is forced to follow the rulings of kufr." al-Mawsoo'ah al-Fiqhiyyah, 4/264
Al-Hassan Ibn Salih (rahimahullah) said:
"Whoever remains in the land of the enemy, will be treated like the disbelievers, so long as he was able to join the Muslims but did not do it. If one of the disbelievers accepts Islam, but still remains with the disbelievers, even though he was able to go to join the Muslims, he is to be treated like them; neither his blood nor his property will be protected." Al-Jasaas, "Ahkam al-Qur'an", Vol. 3/216.
Al-Hassan (rahimahullah) said:
"If a Muslim emigrates to the land of the disbelievers, yet does not renounce Islam, he will (still) be an apostate by virtue of his abandonment of 'Dar ul-Islam."' Al-Jasaas, "Ahkam al-Qur'an", Vol. 3/216.
The Arabic text of the preceding passage refers to the land of the disbelievers as 'dar ul-harb' and 'Ard ul-Adu', that is: the 'land of the enemy'; this indicates an active military opposition to the Muslims, as if in a state of war.
Imam Ibn Kathir (rahimahullah) commented on the following ayah as follows,
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ تَوَفَّاهُمُ ٱلْمَلاۤئِكَةُ ظَالِمِيۤ أَنْفُسِهِمْ قَالُواْ فِيمَ كُنتُمْ قَالُواْ كُنَّا مُسْتَضْعَفِينَ فِي ٱلأَرْضِ قَالْوۤاْ أَلَمْ تَكُنْ أَرْضُ ٱللَّهِ وَاسِعَةً فَتُهَاجِرُواْ فِيهَا فَأُوْلَـٰئِكَ مَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ وَسَآءَتْ مَصِيراً
When Angels take the souls of those who die in sin against their souls, they ask: "In what (plight) Were ye?" They reply: "Weak and oppressed were we in th e earth." They ask: "Was not the earth of Allah spacious enough for you to move yourselves away (From evil)?" Such men will find their abode in Hell; What an evil refuge! (an Nisa: 97)
"This noble ayah is general for everyone who resides amongst the polytheists while he is able to make Hijrah and he is not able to perform his Deen, and so, he is wronging himself and committing something forbidden by Ijmaa' and by the explicit evidence of this ayah." "Tafsir Ibn Kathir", 2/343, and Ibn Ateeq, "Ad-Difaa "', p. 13.
Al Manaawee (rahimahullah) said regarding the hadith,
On the Authority of Samurah ibn Jundub, the Prophet (sallallahu 'alayhe wassallam) said, "Whoever joins the Mushrikoon and lives with them, then he is like them." (Abu Dawood)
Explaining the cause behind his statement: "…then he is like them," he stated:
"That is because embracement of the enemy of Allah and showing Muwaalaat towards him necessitates one's turning away from Allah, and whosoever turns away from Allah, then then Shaytan will befriend him and will drag him to disbelief. Al Zamakhsharee said: 'This is understood because demonstrating Muwaalaat towards someone and demonstrating Muwaalaat towards his enemy is contradictory to each other." Fayd al Qadeer (6/111)
Ash-Shawkaanee (rahimahullah) said:
"The statement, "…then he is like them," is evidence for the prohibition of residing with the Kuffar and the obligation of separating oneself from them. Even though the Scholars have discussed the authenticity of this Hadith, the statement of Allah testifies to its authenticity:
وَيُسْتَهْزَأُ بِهَا فَلاَ تَقْعُدُواْ مَعَهُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَخُوضُواْ فِي حَدِيثٍ غَيْرِهِ إِنَّكُمْ إِذاً مِّثْلُهُمْ
"Then sit not with them, until they engage in a talk other than that; (but if you stayed with them) certainly in that case you would be like them.' (an Nisa: 140) "Nayl al-Awtaar" (8/177)
'Abdullah Ibn 'Umar (radiyallahu 'anhu) said:
"Whoever settles amongst the disbelievers, celebrates their feasts and joins in their revelry and dies in their midst will likewise be raised to stand with them on the Day of Resurrection." (Ibn Taymiyyah said in his book: "Iqtidha' as-Sifat alMustaqeem", p.200, that the chain of narration of this Hadith is Sahih.)
Abu 'Abdillah Ahmad ibn Muhammad (rahimahullah), also known as Shaykh 'Ulaysh (d. 1299H), was asked about dwelling in the midst of the Kuffar if they conquer the lands of the Muslims and abandoning the Hijrah; pay close attention to what he says here as this is the exact situation we are in today. This is what he said within his long response:
"Verily this polytheistic Muwaalaat was no where to be found in the period of Islam's glory and honor. It did not occur – as it has been said – except after the passing of hundreds of years and after the passing of the Mujtahidoon Imams of Islam, and it is for that reason that none of them delved into its Fiqh rulings. This Christian Muwaalaat did not emerge except in year 500 (Hijri) and afterwards in the time in which the accursed Christians, may Allah demolish them, conquered the Saqliyah peninsula and some of the areas of al-Andalus. Some of the jurists were asked about it so they sought to understand the issue through the means of the Fiqh rulings that are related to the one who does that. So they responded by saying that their rulings are like that of the one who embraces Islam and does not migrate. I say: meaning by that, in Kufr – so they placed those whom the question was asked about and those who were not asked about (the Christians) with respect to their ruling – they declared both equal with respect to the Fiqhi rulings that are related to their wealth and children. And they did not see any difference between the two groups. That is because in Muwaalaat of the enemies, dwelling with them, going out with them, dressing like them, not being different from them, leaving the compulsory Hijrah (in all of this) there are these rulings that are unspoken but included and implied in the question all at once – so they – may Allah be pleased with them – attached the unspoken rulings upon these whom the question was asked about and the rulings that are agreed upon in it [this issue]." "The Exposition regarding the Disbelief of the one that assists the Americans," pgs. 106-107
This also further confirms the ruling for the one who becomes Muslim in a Kafir country; so if this is what he is saying about dwelling amongst the enemies of Allah, then what would he say about our situation today where we are not only dwelling amongst the enemies of Allah, but we praise their Taghooti regime, participate in strengthening the Taghooti regime through voting, condemn those that show their al Walaa wal Baraa, imitate the Mushrikeen in their land, and make every excuse to not make Hijrah?! And these are only a few of the sins which the Muslim Community commits here!
'Abdullah ibn 'Umar Abu Sa'eed al-Baydaawee (rahimahullah) (d. 685H) said in his Tafseer regarding the ayah,
وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُمْ مِّنكُم فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ
And whoever is an ally to them from amongst you, then indeed he is from amongst them, (al Ma'idah: 51)
"Meaning: Whoever from you are allies with them then verily he is from their general body. This is a strong emphasis on the obligation to avoid them as he (sallallahu 'alayhe wassallam) said:
'Their two fires should not be seen'." Tafseer al-Baydaawee: 2/334
Ibn Hajar (rahimahullah) (d. 852H) said in the explanation of the hadith of Ibn 'Umar that is Marfu':
"If Allah descends a punishment upon a people, that punishment will strike whoever was amongst them, then they will be resurrected upon their actions."
He (Ibn Hajar) said:
"From what is derived and benefited from this is the permissibility of fleeing from the Kuffar and the oppressors. This is because dwelling among them is a form of throwing one's self into destruction. This is if he does not assist them or become pleased with their actions for if he assisted or was pleased, then he is from them." (Fath al Baari (13/61))
The Publishers of Shaykh Naasir bin Hamad al-Fahd's book (at-Tibyan), "The Exposition regarding the Disbelief of the one that assists the Americans," commented on this saying,
"AllahuAkbar! We ask Allah for protection. How often do we hear all of the excuses for remaining in the West and perhaps one of the most oft repeated excuses is: "I cannot leave this country without any provision for I will most certainly put myself in a difficult precarious situation of dire distress." Here Ibn Hajar (rahimahullah) is saying that by remaining there without a valid excuse, we are in fact throwing ourselves into destruction! What a difference in worldview there is between Ibn Hajar and ourselves – wallaahul Musta'aan!"